The Birthing Process

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The length of this stage varies from mother to mother. It depends on many factors including but not limited to previous pregnancies, the health and condition of the mother and fetus, patience of the doctor or midwife and willingness to induce labor, medications used at this stage, hospital versus home birth, etc.

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Stage 2 generally takes from 15 to 50 minutes. During this time, uterine contractions strengthen and become more frequent.


During this stage mother will feel the need to bear down and push. The baby goes through a series of passive movements - especially the head, which undergoes flexion, internal rotation, extension, external rotation, and crowning the first sign of the baby's head.

All You Wanted To Know About Water-Birthing

This stage consists of the period immediately following birth to the expulsion of the placenta - generally taking 5 to 10 minutes. Should the placenta not easily come out, tugging or pulling should not be performed.

This is particularly true in countries such as Portugal, where great efforts were made following the Salazar dictatorship to establish an effective public health system and hospital network. While we may have our own personal opinions and positions, however, our energies are firmly devoted to the academic exposition of socio-cultural dynamics, as reflected in this collection of papers.

Technology in the birthing room.

It is important to recall that Jordan advocated a seeking of commonality — a dialogic approach of mutual accommodation, proven to be successful in some settings Jordan We are adherents to this approach. Ongoing dialogue and exchange between academics and the medical establishment, as well as with representatives of the public health care sector, are essential.

On an international level, this ethnographic work aims to contribute to ongoing efforts to offer new analyses of birth which go beyond generalising descriptions of the oppositional discourses of specific social actors e. In our opinion, comprehensive analysis and understanding of birth is only possible through the inclusion of probing primary qualitative studies, including ethnography, as well as birth narratives, all of which attempt to capture the lived complexities of this deeply physical, emotional, personal and yet most socio-cultural event.

Clearly, childbirth is a subject which will not and should not go away, and we hope that this collection of papers will contribute to the promotion of this subject in Portugal as a matter of both scholarly and social importance. Berkeley, University of California Press. Martin eds. New York, Demeter Press, Lisbon, Dom Quixote.

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Lisbon, Livros Horizonte. Whiteford and M.

Poland eds. Boulder, CO , Westview Press, Oxford, Berghahn Books.

6 Ways a Doula Can Transform the Birthing Process for Moms-to-Be

New York, Blue Ribbon. Oxford, Clarendon Press. Coimbra, Formasau. London, RCM. University of the West of England, UK jowhite67 yahoo. Revista de antropologia social e cultural, arbitrada por pares. Anna Fedele e Joanna White. Whilst much is known about the clinical management of labour and childbirth less attention is paid to what, beyond clinical interventions, needs to be done to make women feel safe, comfortable and positive about the experience.

The growing knowledge on how to initiate, accelerate, terminate, regulate, or monitor the physiological process of labour and childbirth has led to an increasing medicalization of the process. In line with this objective, this guideline brings together existing and new recommendations that address not only the clinical requirements for a safe labour and childbirth but also meet the psychological and emotional needs of women.

It seeks to ensure that women give birth in an environment that in addition to being safe from a medical perspective also allows them to have a sense of control through involvement in decision making and which leaves them with a sense of personal achievement.

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Adopting a woman-centred philosophy and a human-rights based approach opens the door to many of the care options that women want such as the right to have a companion of choice with them throughout the labour and birth as well as the freedom to move around during the early stages of labour and to choose their position for birth. For health care facilities, in addition to providing the clinical care specific to labour and childbirth, it also means making sure that women are treated with respect and that they have the very basics of oral fluids and food during labour and childbirth.

Continuity of care, regular monitoring and documentation of events as well as clear communication between medical practitioners and clients are essential, as is ensuring that a referral plan is in place should more advance medical care become necessary.